The most potent holistic elixir on the market today next sunday...

The most potent holistic elixir on the market today next sunday on the dutch rawfood festival Amsterdam.

https://www.facebook.com/MrChocoBean/ https://www.facebook.com/MrChocoBean/photos/a.278662298941335.1073741830.241729359301296/557329401074622/One of the six #extracts bottled in 50 and 100ml miron glas #chaga #elixer / #elixir #elixirs #tincture #detox

Chaga Hollistic tripple Mushroom extract

Wild Harvested Chaga Mushroom (Inonotus Obliquus) “The King of Herbs” Clinically proven to be one of nature’s oldest, safest and most powerful medicinal herbs. Highest “Anti-Oxidant” Value Chaga - 36,557 Goji Berries - 400 Acai Berries - 800 Blueberries - 24.5 (ORAC per 1g)

(USDA / Tufts University - Boston, MA) Approved by the U.S.F.D.A. Safe for “Food” Use / Supplement World Trade Organization Classified as a Medicinal Mushroom Chaga Mushroom contains over 215 Phytonutrients No toxicity or side effects.

Detoxification: cells, skin, tissues, blood, liver, intestines & colon, kidney & bladder, lymphatic system, lung & respiratory, yeast & fungal, chemicals and heavy metals (including lead and mercury).

Why is #Chaga #Mushroom in an Alcohol Extract the most powerful? There are 3 clinically proven reasons.

  1. Chaga Mushroom has a low solubility and Alcohol is the best at extracting the naturally occurring constituents.
  2. Alcohol acts as a preservative, maintaining longer cell integrity and ionization.
  3. Alcohol acts as a carrier across mucous membranes, facilitating faster absorption into the bloodstream. Japan Clinical Study: Alcohol Extract is more powerful than water: Hot water (50 degrees C, 70 degrees C, and 80 degrees C) and ethanol extracts of Chaga Mushroom were investigated. Among the four extracts, the ethanol extract (EE) exhibited the strongest SOD-like activity and antiproliferative effect on DLD-1 cells. Reference: Clinical Study from Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8572, Japan. Hu H, Zhang Z, Lei Z, Yang Y, Sugiura N. 2009 Jan; 107(1):42-8.

What if I am too sensitive for alcohol? The amount of alcohol (approx. 60 drops) consumed for a daily dosage is less than the natural fermentation of 1 apple or orange digested in the stomach.

CHAGA and ANTIOXIDANTS What is the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC)? The ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) scale designed by the USDA, measures the amount of free oxygen radicals that a food, or supplement can absorb in your body. Chaga has the highest ORAC score for natural foods or supplements as tested by the USDA and Tufts University in Boston, MA.

Oxidative stress caused by free radicals, has been demonstrated to accelerate the aging process in both cells and blood vessels. Oxidative stress also increases the risk of certain types of cancers, coronary heart disease and many other health problems. Chaga Mushroom has the highest ORAC score for natural foods or supplements as tested by the USDA and Tufts University. ORAC Results Fruits and Vegetables per 100g / 3.5oz (Conducted by Tuffs University Dept. of Health Sciences Boston, MA:U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Institute of Health Project Expo 2003)

Chaga Mushroom 3,655,700 Acai Berries 80,000 Goji Berries 40,000 Prunes 5,890 Pomegranates 3,370 Raisins 2,890 Blueberries 2,450 Blackberries 2,080 Kale 1,800 Cranberries 1,790 Garlic Clove 1,690 Strawberries 1,570 Spinach 1,290 Steamed Spinach 930 Broccoli Flowers 910 Beets 860 Carrot 200 (1 gram of Chaga Approx. 3 pounds of Blueberries) (1 gram of Chaga Approx. 4 ounces of Goji Berries)

SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE Chaga Mushroom has 25-50 times more Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Enzyme than CoEnzyme 10 (CoQ10), popular juices, vitamins, barley grass, beta carotene, seaweeds, fish oils, essential oils, Reishi, Truffles, Maitake, Cordyceps, Agaricus any other mushrooms.

Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Enzyme (units per 1g) Chaga Mushroom 35,000 Agoricus 1,500 Reishi 1,400 Truffles 860

What is the Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Enzyme?

SOD is The Most Powerful Cellular Antioxidant Superoxide Dismutase (known as SOD) is an enzyme associated with copper, zinc, manganese and iron by body cells, and breaks down the super oxide free radicals. Manganese and zinc, in particular, stimulate production of SOD. SOD is an antioxidant produced by the human body that absorbs free radicals and neutralizes them before they can damage tissue cells. SOD is found in both the dermis and the epidermis, and is key to the production of healthy fibroblasts (skin-building cells). SOD is the most powerful enzyme in the body and acts as a cellular antioxidant. SOD plays an extremely important role in the protection of all aerobic life-systems against oxygen toxicity (and the free radicals derived from oxygen). SOD is the most dangerous free radical produced in the body because it requires three electrons to rebalance itself. Most free radicals seek only one electron. SOD exerts this benefit in both the mitochondria and the cytoplasm of the cell. SOD provides enzymatic detoxification of aging hydrogen peroxides produced by skin's metabolism. SOD is the body’s primary defense system for tissues and organs against free radicals. SOD is critical to cellular health, protecting the cells from excessive oxygen radicals, free radicals and other harmful agents that cause premature aging or eventual cell death. SOD levels decline with age, while free radical production increases. SOD is not contained in many foods, if contained than SOD’s level is very low. The result is that SOD enzyme deficiency is common. Our bodies cannot make enough SOD to combat our toxic environment. Our body and cells being continually, every day polluted by pesticides, food chemicals, hormones, pollution, chlorinated water, radiation, plastics, antibiotics, fluoride, heavy metals, some medications and more create a need for SOD. Due to increased pollution, toxins and pesticides in our environment, the need for a powerful Cellular Antioxidant is now greater than ever. Free radical damage caused by this daily environment of toxins has led to an increase in cancer and other degenerative diseases in younger and younger people over the last few decades. Proper daily SOD supplementation will protect your immune system and greatly lower your chances of diseases and ultimately slowing the aging process. Why is it important to have enough SOD every day? SOD as Cellular Antioxidants are a critical part of any anti-aging health plan. SOD helps determine our life span, as well protect us from cancer, high blood pressure, heart & cardiovascular diseases, arthritis, chronic muscle & joint pain, digestion disorders, diabetes, circulation disorders, kidney & liver disorders, cholesterol, allergies, bronchitis, asthma, prostate, skin aliments and many other health problems.

How long does Chaga Mushroom Extract take for the body to assimilate and what about NANO NUTRIENTS? It happens immediately. The longer a nutrient remains on a rooted plant system, the smaller the molecules become.

Chaga Mushroom Other Key Ingredients Chaga Mushroom is a superior grade medicinal mushroom containing over 215 phytonutrients, glyconutrients including: Betulinic Acid, Polysaccharides, Beta Glucans, Tripeptides, Triterpenes including Lanosterol-type Triterpenes, Sterols, Saponins, Inotodiols, Trametenolic Acid, Melanin. High in Amino Acids, Dietary Fiber, Ionized Trace Minerals (Copper, Selenium, Zinc, Magnese, Iron), Ionized Essential minerals (Magnesium, Potassium, Calcium, Chloride, Sodium, Phosphorus), Vitamin B1 (Thiamine), B2 (Riboflavin), B3 (Niacin), Vitamin K, Vitamin D2 (Ergosterol), which is not found in vegetables. Phytonutrients or Phytochemicals: Phytonutrients are certain organic components of plants, and these components are thought to promote human health. Also ORGANIC fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes, nuts and teas are rich sources of phytonutrients. Phytonutrients may serve as antioxidants, enhance immune response, enhance cell-to-cell communication, alter estrogen metabolism, convert to vitamin A (beta-carotene is metabolized to vitamin A), cause cancer cells to die (apoptosis), repair DNA damage caused by smoking and other toxic exposures, detoxify carcinogens through the activation of the cytocrome P450 and Phase II enzyme systems. Glyconutrients: Glyconutrients are plant saccharides that provide support for the immune system. Saccharides are necessary for the body’s creation of glycoforms, the structures on cell surfaces used to “talk” to other cells. Glyconutrients play a key role in supporting your immune system and promoting effective cell-to-cell communication. Recent scientific research has shown that eight simple sugars (monosaccharides)—most of which are no longer found in abundance in the standard modern diet—form virtual “words of life” at the cellular level. These sugars combine with proteins and fats to create glycoforms that coat the surface of nearly every cell in the body. Glycoforms function as cellular recognition molecules that communicate the messages a body needs to function in health. These messages directly affect your natural defense (immune) and endocrine (glandular) systems, in addition to supporting proper organ and system function. Polysaccharides: Polysaccharides function with the immune system against cancer, HIV virus, and other anti-bacterial and viral infections has been studied. Beta Glucan: Modern scientific research demonstrate that Beta Glucans may ward off tumors, cardiovascular, immune deficiencies, hormonal imbalances, viral, bacterial, parasitic diseases. Also used for skin firming.

Betulin or Betulinic Acid: Siberian Chaga contains large amounts of Betulinic Acid in a form that can be ingested orally and also contains the full spectrum of immune-stimulating phytochemicals. Chaga is the only mushroom to contain low pH Betulinic Acid which directly targets cancer cells, which are primarily low pH instructure. Also clinically proven to have anti-tumor and tumor reducing benefit. The anti-cancer properties of Betulin or Betulinic Acid, is now being studied as a chemotherapeutic agent.

Inotodiol: Has shown activity against influenza (flu) viruses A and B and various cancer cells. Inotodiols extracted from Siberia Chaga exhibit anti tumor properties, destroying Walker 256 Carcinosarcoma cancer cells and MCF-7 human adenocarcinoma mammary cells. Institutional studies at the University of Tokyo, Japan have determined the effective destruction of certain cancerous carcinosarcomas and mammary adenocarcinomas. Triterpenes: Lower cholesterol, improves digestion, detoxifies the liver, hepatitis, chronic bronchitis, coughs and asthma. In vitro Triterpenes effective against MCF-7 cells. Triterpenoids and Sterols: Promotes good blood circulation and assists to lower blood pressure and reduce cholesterol. Sterol: Derivatives effective for prostrate, herpes, lupus, allergies and psoriasis. Lanosterol-linked triterpenes: Has been studied and researched by Dr. Kirsti Kahlos, School of Pharmacology, University of Helsinki, Finland. Dr. Kahlos’ team conducted studies validating the immuno-modulating impact of Lanosterol-linked triterpenes effective as a flu-vaccination and for anti-tumor applications. Lanosterols: Lanosterols exhibit strong cytotoxicity towards carcinoma cells. Assists to lower cholesterol and reduce candidas. Anti-bacterial. Trametenolic Acid: For non-insulin dependent diabetics. Saponins: Saponins are glycosides mainly of the triterpenoidal type found Siberian Chaga and in vegetables (spinach, tomatoes, alfalfa sprouts). Research studies indicate it lowers the risk of cancer and lowers cholesterol. Saponins have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. Melanin: The Melanin produced by the Chaga mushroom demonstrates high antioxidant and genoprotective effects (Melanin Complex of Medicinal Mushroom Inonotus Obliquus, Journal of Medical Mushrooms, 2002, vol. 4). Melanin enhances the appearance of hair, skin and eyes, and restores a more youthful appearance. Vitamin K: Effective in decreasing the appearance of spider veins and broken surface capillaries. Vitamin-D2 (Ergosterol): One of three vitamins able to be absorbed by the skin and the only one that the body is able to manufacture (when exposed to ultraviolet light). This vitamin is necessary for the building of new skin cells, as well as bones, teeth, and hair. This vitamin regulates cell turn over and is used in prescription derivatives to help control psoriasis. Derivatives effective for antioxidant therapy and cancer drugs.

Proper Chaga Mushroom Extract supplementation will protect your Immune System and greatly lower your chances of diseases and ultimately slowing the aging process. What does Wild Harvested Chaga Mushroom do inside the body?

  • delivers a powerful dose of antioxidants and SOD enzymes, essential amino acids and low molecular weight organic essential & trace minerals.
  • protect every cell in the entire body from free-radical damage
  • promote cellular respiration and proliferation
  • helps regenerate cells
  • helps regenerate damaged tissue
  • promotes the growth of healthy cells
  • assist in cellular repair
  • slow down aging
  • enhances the immune system
  • maintains optimum alkalinity and pH levels
  • oxygenates the blood
  • builds strong blood
  • combats premature aging
  • protects DNA
  • helps stabilize blood sugar
  • improves disease resistance
  • has a anti-inflammatory benefits
  • improve neurological function
  • improves digestion
  • improves the circulation of blood all over the body
  • alleviates stress and anxiety
  • increases energy and strength
  • fights chronic fatigue
  • supports normal kidney support
  • balances hormones
  • manages weight
  • helps gain muscles
  • improves lymphocyte count
  • suppresses allergies
  • maintains healthy gums
  • reduces muscle and joint pain
  • improves memory and concentration
  • helps optimize cardiovascular health
  • inhibits lipid peroxidation
  • supports vision health
  • maintains healthy blood pressure and cholesterol levels
  • impedes tumor malignancy
  • boosts natural cancer-fighting ability
  • reduces the toxic effects of chemotherapy and radiation
  • helps detoxification of all cells, skin, blood, liver, intestines, colon, kidney, bladder, lymphatic system, lung & respiratory, yeast & fungal, chemicals and heavy metals (including lead and mercury).
  • helps overall body stress cleanse. ***Rather than targeting a specific body system or problem, this cleanse reflects broad spectrum. It clears the “junk” out of body pathways so that wholesome nutrients can get in quickly to rebuild energy and strength. You may have been struggling with the low nutrition of a Standard American Diet for decades - NON USABLE NUTRIENTS. Some food with fake fats may even contribute to illness. Signs that needs an overall stress cleanse: unusually tired, unusual body odor, feel mentally dull, gained weight even through your diet hasn’t changed.

Proper Chaga Mushroom Extract supplementation will protect your Immune System and greatly lower your chances of diseases and ultimately slowing the aging process. What does Wild Harvested Chaga Mushroom do inside the body?

  • delivers a powerful dose of antioxidants and SOD enzymes, essential amino acids and low molecular weight organic essential & trace minerals.
  • protect every cell in the entire body from free-radical damage
  • promote cellular respiration and proliferation
  • helps regenerate cells
  • helps regenerate damaged tissue
  • promotes the growth of healthy cells
  • assist in cellular repair
  • slow down aging
  • enhances the immune system
  • maintains optimum alkalinity and pH levels
  • oxygenates the blood
  • builds strong blood
  • combats premature aging
  • protects DNA
  • helps stabilize blood sugar
  • improves disease resistance
  • has a anti-inflammatory benefits
  • improve neurological function
  • improves digestion
  • improves the circulation of blood all over the body
  • alleviates stress and anxiety
  • increases energy and strength
  • fights chronic fatigue
  • supports normal kidney support
  • balances hormones
  • manages weight
  • helps gain muscles
  • improves lymphocyte count
  • suppresses allergies
  • maintains healthy gums
  • reduces muscle and joint pain
  • improves memory and concentration
  • helps optimize cardiovascular health
  • inhibits lipid peroxidation
  • supports vision health
  • maintains healthy blood pressure and cholesterol levels
  • impedes tumor malignancy
  • boosts natural cancer-fighting ability
  • reduces the toxic effects of chemotherapy and radiation
  • helps detoxification of all cells, skin, blood, liver, intestines, colon, kidney, bladder, lymphatic system, lung & respiratory, yeast & fungal, chemicals and heavy metals (including lead and mercury).
  • helps overall body stress cleanse. ***Rather than targeting a specific body system or problem, this cleanse reflects broad spectrum. It clears the “junk” out of body pathways so that wholesome nutrients can get in quickly to rebuild energy and strength. You may have been struggling with the low nutrition of a Standard American Diet for decades - NON USABLE NUTRIENTS. Some food with fake fats may even contribute to illness. Signs that needs an overall stress cleanse: unusually tired, unusual body odor, feel mentally dull, gained weight even through your diet hasn’t changed.

Chaga Mushroom has been historically used in Russia, Europe, Scandinavia, Asia by medicine practitioners for:

  • Strengthen Immune System
  • Flu / against influenza viruses A and B
  • High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)
  • Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)
  • Cardiovascular-related problems / Arrhythmia / Pulmonary
  • Coronary Heart Disease / Arteriosclerosis / Stroke
  • Cholesterol
  • Arthritis, Fibromyalgia, Rheumatism, Rheumatism – Myalgia
  • Chronic muscle and joint pain
  • Immune compromised musculoskeletal pain
  • Chronic musculoskeletal dysfunction
  • Muscle Recuperation & Muscle Growth
  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
  • Overweight / Obesity
  • Appetite Suppressant
  • Central Nervous System / Stress-induced tension / mood
  • Concentration
  • Memory & Brain Function
  • Neurasthenia / Nervousness
  • Diabetes
  • Digestive disorders
  • Stomach pain / Stomach-intestinal tract diseases
  • Celiac disease
  • Crohn's disease
  • Gastritis / Chronic Gastritis / Colitis
  • Acid Reflux Syndrome
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome
  • Constipation
  • Allergies
  • Liver
  • Kidney
  • Gallbladder
  • Chronic kidney failure
  • Prostate disorders
  • Hormonal imbalance / Problems associated with Menopause
  • Lymphatic system disorders / Sluggish or swollen lymph glands
  • Insomnia / Sleep Disorders
  • Cancer: breast, mammary glands and female sexual organs, prostate, lung, stomach, liver, bone, lymphatic, cervical, rectum, lips, skin cancer & melanoma
  • Tumors / Tumor metastasis
  • Chemotherapy Support
  • pH balancer
  • Pneumonia and Lung Disorders
  • Tuberculosis (TB) / Tuberculosis (TB) of the bones
  • Bronchitis / Chronic Bronchitis
  • Asthma
  • Leukemia
  • HIV and Immune Compromised diseases
  • Herpes
  • Altitude sickness
  • Paradontosis
  • Bacterial, and parasitic diseases
  • Intestinal worms
  • Hodgkin’s disease
  • Fungal Growth
  • Candidiasis (yeast)
  • Ulcers / Chronic Ulcers
  • Varicose Veins / Spider Veins / Broken Surface Capillaries
  • Edema or Water Retention
  • Gum diseases/inflammation
  • Hair loss
  • Brittle, cracked and weak nails

Research Studies Chaga Mushroom (Inonotus Obliquus)

CHAGA MUSHROOM (Inonotus obliquus) ALCOHOL (ethanol) EXTRACT SHOWED THE STRONGEST SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE (SOD) ACTIVITY AND ANTIPROLIFERATIVE EFFECT COMPARED WITH WATER EXTRACT Polysaccharide, protein and phenolic content, and the 1H-NMR spectra: Hot water (50 degrees C, 70 degrees C, and 80 degrees C) and ethanol crude extracts of I. obliquus were investigated for their antioxidant activity with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl) (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity assays. Also investigated the antiproliferative effects and ability of the extracts to induce apoptosis in human colon cancer DLD-1 cells. Among the four extracts, the ethanol extract (EE) exhibited the strongest SOD-like activity and antiproliferative effect on DLD-1 cells. Reference: Clinical Study from Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8572, Japan. Hu H, Zhang Z, Lei Z, Yang Y, Sugiura N. 2009 Jan; 107(1):42-8.

SOLVENT - ETHANOL (Alcohol) ALLOWED EXTRACTION OF TRITERPENOID WITH A HIGHEST CONTENT A simple procedure is described for the simultaneous extraction and determination of betulin and betulinic acid in white birch. The extraction was checked using different solvents: dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, acetone, chloroform, methanol and ethanol. It was found that ethanol was a good extraction solvent that allowed extraction of triterpenoid with a highest content. Reference: Clinical Study from Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, PR China. Zhao G, Yan W, Cao D. PMID: 17084057, PubMed - as supplied by publisher.

ANTI-AGING Positive effect on localisation and bringing out of 90Sr from organism were gained in the series of experiments on the rats Wistar after using per orum alcohol extract, water suspension and water extract of Inonotus obliquus (Chaga). Everyday per orum infusion of Inonotus water extract into the BALB-line mice under conditions of a prolonged (during two months) external total gamma-irradiation with power dose 0.025 sGr/min has a positive effect on increase an average life duration, are slow down the development of leycopenia, hold lipid peroxide oxidation in the blood and in critic tissues and the R-proteins in blood serum on the level, close to the intact control; appearance, activity and behaviour of the animals were the same. Reference: Clinical Study from Institute of Animals and Plants Ecology, Ural Branch Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg, 620144 Russia. Rasina LN. 2002 Jul-Aug;42(4):399-403.

INDUCES APOPTOSIS (PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH) IN THE TUMORS Betulinic acid: In 1998 there was a study in Poland that demonstrated Chaga's inhibiting effects on tumor growth. Noda and colleagues found that betulin seems to work highly selectively on tumor cells because the interior pH of tumor tissues is generally lower than that of normal tissues, and betulinic acid is only active at those lower levels. They found that once inside the cells, betulinic acid induces apoptosis (programmed cell death) in the tumors. Reference: Tillotsen, Alan. Chaga Mushrooms (Inonotus obliquus) and Wikipedia.

ANTI-CANCER AND IMMUNO-STIMULATING Endo-polysaccharide: Inonotus obliquus BELYU1102 was selected from 12 different strains of Inonotus as a producer of immuno-stimulating polysaccharide. However, indirect anti-cancer effects via immuno-stimulation were observed. The mycelial endo-polysaccharide of I. obliquus is a candidate for use as an immune response modifier. Submerged mycelial cultures are advantageous for industrial production of polysaccharides. Reference: Clinical Study from Department of Biotechnology, College of Engineering, Yonsei University, Shinchon-dong, Seodaemoon-gu, Seoul 120-749, South Korea. Kim YO, Han SB, Lee HW, Ahn HJ, Yoon YD, Jung JK, Kim HM, Shin CS. 2005 Sep 23;77(19):2438-56.

ANTI-TUMOR Polysaccharides - Identification of Inonotus obliquus and analysis of antioxidation and antitumor activities of polysaccharides. The results indicated that I. obliquus polysaccharides exhibit high antitumor and antioxidation effects. Reference: Clinical Study from School of Life Science, Liaoning University, Chongshan Middle Road 66, Shenyang, 110036, People's Republic of China. Song Y, Hui J, Kou W, Xin R, Jia F, Wang N, Hu F, Zhang H, Liu H. 2008 Nov; 57(5):454-62. Epub 2008 Sep 16.

ANTI-TUMOR Lanostane-type triterpenoids from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus: Their structures were determined to be lanosta-8,23E-diene-3beta,22R,25-triol (1) and lanosta-7:9(11),23E-triene-3beta,22R,25-triol (2) by spectral data. Was found to exhibit the potent anti-tumor promoting activity in the in vivo carcinogenesis test. Reference: Clinical Study from Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4-20-1 Nasahara, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-1094, Japan. Taji S, Yamada T, Wada S, Tokuda H, Sakuma K, Tanaka R. 2008 Nov; 43(11):2373-9. Epub 2008 Feb 8.

ANTI-TUMOR Polysaccharides such as hetero-beta-glucans and their protein complexes (e.g., xyloglucans and acidic beta-glucan-containing uronic acid), as well as dietary fibers, lectins, and terpenoids have been isolated from medicinal mushrooms. In Japan, Russia, China, and the U.S.A. several different polysaccharide antitumor agents have been developed from the fruiting body, mycelia, and culture medium of various medicinal mushrooms (Inonotus obliquus, Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum, Schizophyllum commune, Trametes versicolor,, and Flammulina velutipes). Both cellular components and secondary metabolites of a large number of mushrooms have been shown to effect the immune system of the host and therefore could be used to treat a variety of disease states. Reference: Clinical Study from International Centre for Cryptogamic Plants and Fungi, Institute of Evolution, University of Haifa, Israel.Wasser SP, Weis AL. 1999;19(1):65-96.

MALIGANT TUMORS, DIABETES, CARDIOVASKULAR DISEASE AND AIDS Abstract Inonotus obliquus has high nutritional and medicinal value, especially in treating malignant tumors, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and AIDS, attracting significant attention from scholars in recent years. In this paper, the biological characteristics, chemical composition and pharmacologic effects of Inonotus obliquus were summarized. And the applications in medicine and food were introduced. Future research on Inonotus obliquus was also discussed in order to make Inonotus obliquus obtain effective exploitation and satisfy people’s demands. Key Words Inonotus obliquus - biological characteristics - chemical composition - pharmacologic effect Journal Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine. Issue Volume 15, Number 2 / April, 2009. Publisher Chinese Association of Traditional and Western Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences. Studies of (1) Deptment of Pathology Jilin Medical College, Jilin, 132013, China (2) Deptment of Pharmacy, Jilin Medical College, Jilin, 132013, Jilin, China (3) Deptment of Biochemistry, Jilin Medical College, Jilin, 132013, Jilin, China (4) Deptment of Pathology and Forensic Medicine, Medical College of Yanbian University, Yanji, 133000, Jilin, China.

INHIBIT CANCER Isolation and characterization of a novel platelet aggregation inhibitory peptide (tripeptide) from the medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus. This study describes the extraction and characterization of a platelet aggregation inhibitory peptide from Inonotus obliquus. Ethanol extract from I. obliquus ASI 74006 mycelia showed the highest platelet aggregation inhibitory activity (81.2%). The maximum platelet aggregation inhibitory activity was found when the mycelia of I. obliquus ASI 74006 was extracted with ethanol at 80 degrees C for 12 h. The platelet aggregation inhibitor was purified by systematic solvent fractionation, ultrafiltration, Sephadex G-10 column chromatography, and reverse-phase HPLC. The purified platelet aggregation inhibitor is a novel tripeptide with a molecular mass of 365 Da, having a sequence of Trp-Gly-Cys. The purified platelet aggregation inhibitor also showed high platelet aggregation inhibitory activity in Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice. Reference: Clinical Study from Department of Genetic Engineering and Bio-Medicinal Resources Research Center, Paichai University, Daejeon 302-735, Republic of Korea. Hyun KW, Jeong SC, Lee DH, Park JS, Lee JS. 2006 Jun; 27(6):1173-8. Epub 2005 Nov 11.

SIGNIFICANTLY INHIBITED THE GROWTH OF TUMOR MASS This study showed that the extract of Inonotus obliquus mushroom exhibited a potential anticancer activity against B16-F10 melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo through the inhibition of proliferation and induction of differentiation and apoptosis of cancer cells. Furthermore, the anti-tumor effect of Inonotus obliquus extract was assessed in vivo in Balb/c mice. Intraperitoneal administration of Inonotus obliquus extract significantly inhibited the growth of tumor mass in B16-F10 cells implanted mice, resulting in a 3-fold (relative to the positive control, (*)p<0.05) inhibit at dose of 20mg/kg/day for 10 days. Reference: Clinical Study from VestibuloCochlear Research Center and Department of Microbiology, Wonkwang University, #344-2, Shinyoung-dong, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749, South Korea. Youn MJ, Kim JK, Park SY, Kim Y, Park C, Kim ES, Park KI, So HS, Park R. 2009 Jan 21;121(2):221-8. Epub 2008 Oct 25.

INHIBITED GROWTH OF TUMOUR CELLS The effect of aqueous extracts from Inonotus obliquus on the mitotic index and enzyme activities. The effect of aqueous extract from Inonotus obliquus on the mitotic index and some enzyme activities in human cervical uteri tumour cells HeLa S3 in vitro was evaluated. It was concluded that Inonotus extract inhibited the growth of tumour cells. The fungal extract caused a decrease of the cell protein amount and mitotic index value. Moreover, this extract disturbed metabolism in cells caused decreased activity of LDH, HBDH, MDH, GGT and increasing the activity of catalase. Reference: Clinical Study from Department of Human Genetics, Medical Academy, Lublin, Poland. Rzymowska J. 1998 Jan; 137(1):13-5.

INHIBITED CANCER CELLS GROWTH Antimitotic activity of aqueous extracts of Inonotus obliquus. The cytotoxic effect of two aqueous extracts of Inonotus obliquus on human cervical uteri cancer cells (Hela S3) in vitro was evaluated. It was concluded that Inonotus extracts at a concentration of 10 micrograms/ml to 2000 micrograms/ml inhibited cancer cells growth. Reference: Clinical Study from Department of Pharmacognosy, Silesian Medical Academy, Sosnowiec, Poland. Burczyk J, Gawron A, Slotwinska M, Smietana B, Terminska K. 1996 May; 135(5):306-9.

INHIBITS OXIDATIVE DNA DAMAGE Chaga mushroom extract inhibits oxidative DNA damage in human lymphocytes as assessed by comet assay. We evaluated the effect of aqueous Chaga mushroom extracts for their potential for protecting against oxidative damage to DNA in human lymphocytes. Cells were pretreated with various concentrations (10, 50, 100 and 500 microg/mL) of the extract for 1 h at 37 degrees C. Cells were then treated with 100 microM of H2O2 for 5 min as an oxidative stress. Evaluation of oxidative damage was performed using single-cell gel electrophoresis for DNA fragmentation (Comet assay). Using image analysis, the degree of DNA damage was evaluated as the DNA tail moment. Cells pretreated with Chaga extract showed over 40% reduction in DNA fragmentation compared with the positive control (100 micromol H2O2 treatment). Thus, Chaga mushroom treatment affords cellular protection against endogenous DNA damage produced by H2O2. Reference: Clinical Study from Department of Medical Nutrition, Kyunghee University, 1 Hoekidong, Dongdaemoonku, Seoul 130-701, South Korea. Park YK, Lee HB, Jeon EJ, Jung HS, Kang MH. 2004;21(1-4):109-12.

STRONG ANTIOXIDANT AND HIGHEST ANTIMUTAGENIC ACTIVITY 3beta-hydroxy-lanosta-8, 24-dien-21-al and inotodiol - Antimutagenic effects and antioxidative activities of subfractions of Chaga mushroom Had a strong antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals and were identified by MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR analyses as 3beta-hydroxy-lanosta-8, 24-dien-21-al and inotodiol, respectively. The ethyl acetate extract was separated by vacuum chromatography into three fractions, and the fraction bearing the highest antimutagenic activity was subsequently separated into four fractions by reversed phase (ODS-C(18)) column chromatography. Study showed that the 3beta-hydroxy-lanosta-8, 24-dien-21-al and inotodiol components of Inonotus obliquus bear antimutagenic and antioxidative activities. Reference: Clinical Study from Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701, Republic of Korea. Ham SS, Kim SH, Moon SY, Chung MJ, Cui CB, Han EK, Chung CK, Choe M. 2009 Jan 10;672(1):55-9. Epub 2008 Oct 17.

ANTIOXIDANT Phenolic compounds produced by sclerotia of I. obliquus in the control medium consisted of melanins, flavonoids, polyphenols and small phenolics - Phenolic compounds produced by sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus are the active constituents responsible for antioxidant activities. In this study, I. obliquus was grown in a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) to explore how it accumulates phenolic Their accumulation was affected by adding H(2)O(2) to the medium, where increased levels of total intracellular phenols (TIP) and melanins, but less total extracellular phenol (TEP) occurred. Simultaneous exposure to H(2)O(2) and arbutin resulted in a further increase in TIP production and reduced accumulation of TEP. Both TIP and TEP obtained at different culture ages and media were active in scavenging Superoxide anion and DPPH radicals. Therefore, production of phenolic compounds by I. obliquus is enhanced by imposing oxidative stress, which might allow it to be exploited as a reliable source of pharmaceutically important phenolic compounds. Reference: Clinical Study from Key Laboratory for Biotechnology on Medicinal Plants of Jiangsu Province, Xuzhou Normal University, Xuzhou, China. yyzw@xznu.edu.cn. Zheng W, Zhang M, Zhao Y, Wang Y, Miao K, Wei Z. 2009 Feb;100(3):1327-35. Epub 2008 Sep 27.

CHAGA MUSHROOM HAD THE STRONGEST ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY (both Superoxide and Hydroxyl radicals scavenging activities) compared with other medicinal fungi) Small phenolics as follows- 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy benzoic acid 2-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl ethyl ester (BAEE), protocatechic acid (PCA), caffeic acid (CA), 3,4-dihybenzaladehyde (DB), 2,5-dihydroxyterephtalic acid (DTA), syringic acid (SA) and 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone (DBL): In the present study, the antioxidant activity of Chaga was precisely compared with those of other medicinal fungi (Agaricus blazei Mycelia, Ganoderma lucidum and Phellinus linteus) showing Chaga had the strongest antioxidant activity among fungi examined in terms of both superoxide and hydroxyl radicals scavenging activities. Reference: Clinical Study from Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Science, Niigata, Japan. Nakajima Y, Sato Y, Konishi T. 2007 Aug;55(8):1222-6.

STRONG ANTIOXIDANT EFFECT CHAGA MUSHROOM ALCOHOL (Methanolic) EXTRACT SHOWED SIGNIFICANT SCAVENING ACTIVITY AGAINST THE ABTS RADICAL CATION AND DPPH RADICAL New antioxidant polyphenols from the medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus. The fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus, a medicinal mushroom called chaga, has been used as a traditional medicine for cancer treatment. Although this mushroom has been known to exhibit potent antioxidant activity, the mechanisms responsible for this activity remain unknown. In our investigation for free radical scavengers from the methanolic extract of this mushroom, inonoblins A (1), B (2), and C (3) were isolated along with the known compounds, phelligridins D (4), E (5), and G (6). Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analyses. These compounds exhibited significant scavenging activity against the ABTS radical cation and DPPH radical. Reference: Clinical Study from Functional Metabolites Research Center, KRIBB, 111 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806, Republic of Korea. Lee IK, Kim YS, Jang YW, Jung JY, Yun BS. 2007 Dec 15;17(24):6678-81. Epub 2007 Oct 25.

STRONG ANTIOXIDANT AND GENOPROTECTIVE EFFECTS Melanin complex of the fungus Inonotus obliquus: The fungus Inonotus obliquus (Pers.) Pil. synthesised high-molecular-weight phenolic pigments that were assigned to melanins according to their physicochemical properties. It was showed that copper ions (0.008%), pyrocatechol (1.0 mM), and tyrosine (20.0 mM) stimulated the melanogenesis. The production of melanin correlated with the synthesis of o- and p-diphenoloxidases. The fungal melanin had strong antioxidant and genoprotective effects. Reference: Clinical Study from Institute of Microbiology, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk, Belarus. Babitskaia VG, Shcherba VV, Ikonnikova NV. 2000 Jul-Aug; 36(4):439-44.

STRONG ANTIOXIDANT EFFECT Triterpenoids and steroids, Antioxidant effect of Inonotus obliquus. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the antioxidant capacities of Inonotus obliquus. Four extracts from the fungus were evaluated for antioxidant activity against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Superoxide, and Peroxyl radicals. The polyphenolic extract had a strong antioxidant activity, and the extract containing triterpenoids and steroids presented a relatively strong antioxidant effect. The polysaccharide extract, however, was inactive. The protective effects of these four extracts were assessed against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress using a human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. Our results show that the polyphenolic extract protected these cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress, while the polysaccharide, triterpenoid and steroid extracts were ineffective. Additionally, the remnant polyphenolic and low molecular weight polysaccharide extracts showed a weakly protective effect at a concentration of 50 microg/ml. Our results indicate that Inonotus obliquus has the capacity to scavenge free radicals at concentrations higher than 5 microg/ml and that the polyphenolic extract can protect cells against oxidative stress. Reference: Clinical Study from Department of Dermatology, Seoul National University, Bundang Hospital, 300 Gumi-Dong, Bundang-Gu, Seongnam-Si, Kyoungki-Do 463-707, Republic of Korea. Cui Y, Kim DS, Park KC. 2005 Jan 4;96(1-2):79-85.

ANALGESIC, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY Lipopolysaccharide (LPS): This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of the methanol extract from Inonotus obliquus (MEIO) in vivo and in vitro. MEIO (100 or 200 mg/(kg day), p.o.) reduced acute paw edema induced by carrageenin in rats, and showed analgesic activity, as determined by an acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test and a hot plate test in mice. To reveal the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of MEIO, we examined its effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced responses in a murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. MEIO was found to significantly inhibit the productions of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Consistent with these observations, MEIO potently inhibited the protein and mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Reference: Clinical Study from Department of Biochemistry, College of Pharmacy, Kyung-Hee University, Dongdaemun-Ku, Hoegi-Dong, Seoul 130-701, South Korea. Park YM, Won JH, Kim YH, Choi JW, Park HJ, Lee KT. 2005 Oct 3;101(1-3):120-8.

USEFUL FOR CLINICAL APPLICATIONS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF INFLAMMATORY DISEASES AND MEDICAL FOOD Tested the ability of the I. obliquus extract to inhibit the inflammatory cascades in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. RESULTS: Have useful clinical applications in the management of inflammatory diseases and may also be useful as a medicinal food. Reference: Clinical Study from Department of Biochemistry and Research Institute of Life Sciences, Kangwon National University, Republic of Korea. Kim HG, Yoon DH, Kim CH, Shrestha B, Chang WC, Lim SY, Lee WH, Han SG, Lee JO, Lim MH, Kim GY, Choi S, Song WO, Sung JM, Hwang KC, Kim TW. 2007 Mar;10(1):80-9

HEART / CARDIAC Effects of bioglycans from birch fungus Inonotus obliquus on the electrical activity of cells from the cardiac venous sinus of the frog. Abstract Bioglycans isolated from chaga in a concentration of 0.0001% reduced frequency of action potential in venous sinus cells of frog heart during the first 15–30 min of exposure, then this parameter increased by 10% per hour over 3.5 h, and was 41±3 min−1 from the 4th to the 20th hour of incubation. The frequency of action potentials in heart strips in the chaga extract was 40% higher than in Ringer's solution. The effect of chaga bioglycan is probably associated with adsorption on myocyte membranes. Binding of Ca2+ to bioglycans observed during the first 30 min inhibited efflux of intracellular Ca2+. Reference: Laboratory of Physiological Researches, Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Immunology, Institute of Physiology, Komi Research Center, Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Syktyvkar Biull Eksp Biol Med. 1999 Sep;128(9):264-6. Golovko VA. PMID: 10560041 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

LEUKEMIA Inotodiol, a lanostane triterpenoid: Antitumor effect of Inonotus obliquus Pilat, the antiproliferative effect of lanostane triterpenoids from a chloroform extract of I. obliquus sclerotia against mouse leukemia P388 cells was assessed. examined, only inotodiol inhibited P388 cell proliferation. DNA fragmentation and caspase-3/7 activation were observed in the P388 cells treated with inotodiol (30 microM). A caspase-3 inhibitor, DEVD-CHO (N-acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-al, 100 microM) partially inhibited the DNA fragmentation and growth-inhibition induced by inotodiol. The intraperitoneal administration of 10 mg/kg inotodiol prolonged the number of survival days of the P388-bearing mice. CONCLUSION: Inotodiol inhibits cell proliferation through apoptosis induction by activating caspase-3. Reference: Clinical Study from Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokuriku University, Nomura M, Takahashi T, Uesugi A, Tanaka R, Kobayashi S. Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1181, Japan. 2008 Sep-Oct;28(5A):2691-6.

LEUKEMIA Studies on the digestion by the DNA ase and RNA ase of the blood and bone marrow cells were performed by Prof. J. Aleksandrowicz et al. (Blicharski, Perkowska, Spirer) in the IIIrd Internal Diseases Clinic A.M. in Cracow, Poland. The results were published in 1954. In 1957, published the results of study of digestion of blood and bone marrow smears by urine of normal people and of patients with chronic granulocytic leukemia. Substances of vegetable origin (inonotus obliquus) pass specific digestive properties for some cell nuclei. Recently we isolated a substance from fungus inonotus obliquus which selectively digests the nuclei of cells of chronic granulocytic leukemia, but does not change normal cells. The difference can also be observed on some blood and bone marrow smear slides. The mechanism of this is not known. It seems that chemical changes caused by DNA ase are related to the presence of leukemic isomer of desoxyribonucleic acid. Reference: DIGESTION OF CELL NUCLEI BY ENZYMES. Dr. Janina Krauss-Zaki, IIIiw CLINIC OF INTERNAL DISEASES, CRACOW, POLAND

SIGNIFICANT ANTI-HYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANTI-LIPIDPEROXIDATIVE EFFECT ON NORMAL AND ALLOXAN-DIABETES This study showed that the DMCB of Inonotus obliquus possesses significant antihyperglycemic, antilipidperoxidative and antioxidant effects in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Reference: Clinical Study from Lab of Pharmaceutical Engineering, School of Medicine and Pharmaceutics, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, PR China. Sun JE, Ao ZH, Lu ZM, Xu HY, Zhang XM, Dou WF, Xu ZH. 2008 Jun 19;118(1):7-13. Epub 2008 Mar 4.

BETULINIC ACID STUDIES

INHIBITS PROSTATE CANCER GROWTH Betulinic acid inhibits prostate cancer growth through inhibition of specificity protein transcription factors. Betulinic acid is a pentacyclic triterpene natural product initially identified as a melanoma-specific cytotoxic agent that exhibits low toxicity in animal models. Subsequent studies show that betulinic acid induces apoptosis and antiangiogenic responses in tumors derived from multiple tissues; however, the underlying mechanism of action is unknown. Using LNCaP prostate cancer cells as a model, we now show that betulinic acid decreases expression of vascular endothelial growth (VEGF) and the antiapoptotic protein survivin. The mechanism of these betulinic acid-induced antiangiogenic and proapoptotic responses in both LNCaP cells and in tumors is due to activation of selective proteasome-dependent degradation of the transcription factors specificity protein 1 (Sp1), Sp3, and Sp4, which regulate VEGF and survivin expression. Thus, betulinic acid acts as a novel anticancer agent through targeted degradation of Sp proteins that are highly overexpressed in tumors.Reference: Clinical Study from Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, Houston, Texas 77843-4466, USA. Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Ramaiah SK, Safe S.

AS A CHEMOSENSITIZER MAY BE A NEW STRATEGY TO ENHANCE THE EFFICACY OF CHEMOTHERAPY Effect of betulinic acid on anticancer drug-resistant colon cancer cells. Primary or acquired resistance of tumours to established chemotherapeutic regimens is a major concern in oncology. Attempts to improve the survival of cancer patients largely depend on strategies to prevent tumour cell resistance. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy with a combination of other drugs such as irinotecan (IRT) and oxaliplatin (OXT) has been reported to be effective, even though an optimal regimen has yet to be defined due to the relatively high toxicity of the procedure. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of betulinic acid (BetA) as a chemosensitizer for anticancer drug treatment in chemoresistant colon cancer cell lines. A chemoresistant cell line to 5-fluorouracil (SNU-C5/5FU-R), irinotecan (SNU-C5/IRT-R) and oxaliplatin (SNU-C5/OXT-R) treatment were derived from the wild-type colon adenocarcinoma cell line (SNU-C5/WT). The effect of BetA or a combination of anticancer drugs and BetA on the multidrug resistance-related genes, caspases, Bcl-2, Bad and cell death in the SNU-C5/WT and SNU-C5/R cell lines was analysed. BetA alone was an effective chemotherapeutic drug for the SNU-C5/WT, SNU-C5/5FU-R and SNU-C5/OXT-R cells. The combination of BetA with IRT or OXT was effective against SNU-C5/5FU-R cells, and the combination of BetA with 5-fluorouracil, IRT or OXT was effective against SNU-C5/OXT-R cells. BetA induced cancer cell death by apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. These findings indicate that the use of BetA as a chemosensitizer may be a new strategy to enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy. Reference: Clinical Study from Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Chosun University, 488 Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-140, Korea. Jung GR, Kim KJ, Choi CH, Lee TB, Han SI, Han HK, Lim SC.

CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENT FOR THE MOST PREVALENT HUMAN CANCER TYPES Broad in vitro efficacy of plant-derived betulinic acid against cell lines derived from the most prevalent human cancer types. Betulinic acid (BA) is a widely available plant-derived triterpene with reported activity against cancer cells of neuroectodermal origin and leukaemias. Treatment with BA was shown to protect mice against transplanted human melanoma and led to tumor regression. In contrast, cells from healthy tissues were resistant to BA and toxic side-effects in animals were absent. These findings have raised interest in the chemotherapeutical anti-cancer potential of BA. A comprehensive assessment of the efficacy of BA against the clinically most important cancer types is currently lacking. Therefore, we tested the in vitro sensitivity of broad cell line panels derived from lung, colorectal, breast, prostate and cervical cancer, which are the prevalent cancer types characterized with highest mortalities in woman and men. Multiple assays were used in order to allow a reliable assessment of anti-cancer efficacy of BA. After 48 h of treatment with BA, cell viability as assessed with MTT and cell death as measured with propidium iodide exclusion showed clear differences in sensitivity between cell lines. However, in all cell lines tested colony formation was completely halted at remarkably equal BA concentrations that are likely attainable in vivo. Our results substantiate the possible application of BA as a chemotherapeutic agent for the most prevalent human cancer types. Reference: Clinical Study from Laboratory for Experimental Oncology and Radiobiology, Center for Experimental and Molecular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Kessler JH, Mullauer FB, de Roo GM, Medema JP.

INHIBIT HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS TYPE 1 (HIV-1) Betulinic Acid Derivatives That Target gp120 and Inhibit Multiple Genetic Subtypes of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1. Betulinic acid (BA) derivatives can inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry or maturation depending on side chain modifications. While BA derivatives with antimaturation activity have attracted considerable interest, the anti-HIV-1 profile and molecular mechanism of BA derivatives with anti-HIV-1 entry activity (termed BA entry inhibitors) have not been well defined. In this study, we have found that two BA entry inhibitors, IC9564 and A43D, exhibited a broad spectrum of anti-HIV-1 activity. Both compounds inhibited multiple strains of HIV-1 from clades A, B, and C at submicromolar concentrations. Clade C viruses were more sensitive to the compounds than clade A and B viruses. Interestingly, IC9564 at subinhibitory concentrations could alter the antifusion activities of other entry inhibitors. IC9564 was especially potent in increasing the sensitivity of HIV-1(YU2) Env-mediated membrane fusion to the CCR5 inhibitor TAK-779. Results from this study

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